A Change of Guard

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Tuesday, 29 July 2014

Pung Chiv Kek is the perfect choice, but is Hun Sen genuine?

By Khmerization
28th July, 2014

The surprise selection of Dr. Pung Chiv Kek as the ninth member of the National Election Committee (NEC) is a perfect choice and should be welcomed by all political stakeholders. Being president of the human rights group Licadho, who has been critical of Prime Minister Hun Sen's human rights abuses in the past, she is seen as being biased toward the opposition and is unlikely to be accepted by Mr. Hun Sen as the ninth and crucial member of the NEC. The fact that he accepted her nomination is a surprise and suspicious at the same time. 

While one could accept that Mr. Hun Sen is genuine is seeing real reforms, especially the electoral body, one must be mindful that Mr. Hun Sen is a master of tactician and is notorious for reneging on his promises. Khmerization is concerned that Mr. Hun Sen could play tricks by trying to outsmart the CNRP, especially Mr. Sam Rainsy and Mr. Kem Sokha, by agreeing to nominate an individual deemed to be acceptable to the opposition, but he could play tricks and attempt to stifle her appointment by ordering all CPP parliamentarians to vote against the new composition of the NEC when the National Assembly convened to make a formal appointment, knowing that the inability of the formation of the new NEC could allow the old NEC, which was stacked up by the CPP, to continue organising future elections. 

This agreement looks good on paper but it might not be carried through in whole when it comes to the implementation of it. Mr. Hun Sen can renege on it any time once the CNRP lawmakers-elect took up their seats in the National Assembly. He can just order the CPP to vote against the agreement or against the new composition of the NEC.

However, this political agreement is the best the CNRP could ever get from Mr. Hun Sen, as the CNRP has lost its bargaining power since the 4th January crackdown. Let's hope for the best for the CNRP and let's hope that both parties and all major political stakeholders put national interests before personal or party interests in order to avoid shedding more Khmer bloods and to work together for the progress and the betterment of Cambodia.

Sam Rainsy becomes the head of the newly-created Anti-Corruption Commission of the National Assembly លោក សម រង្ស៊ី ធ្វើ​ប្រធាន​គណៈកម្មការ​ប្រឆាំង​អំពើពុករលួយ នៅ​រដ្ឋសភា

រាជធានីភ្នំពេញ៖ លោក ជាម យៀប ប្រធាន​គណៈកម្មការ​ទី​២​រដ្ឋសភា លើកឡើងថា រចនាសម្ព័ន្ធ​ថ្នាក់ដឹកនាំ​រដ្ឋសភា លោក​សម​ រង្ស៊ី ជា​ប្រធាន​គណៈកម្មការ​ទី​១០ ប្រឆាំង​អំពើពុករលួយ ដែល​ទើប​បង្កើត​។ រីឯ​លោក ងួន ញ៉ិល ជា​អនុប្រធាន​ទី​១​រដ្ឋសភា នឹង​ត្រូវ​ប្តូរ មកជា​អនុប្រធាន​គណៈកម្មការ​វិញ​។​
លោក ជាម យៀប លើកឡើងថាយ៉ាងដូច្នោះ បានធ្វើឡើង បន្ទាប់​ពី​រដ្ឋសភា បាន​បើក​សម័យប្រជុំ​វិសាមញ្ញផ្តល់​សុពល ភាព​តំណាងរាស្ត្រ​ដល់​លោក សម រង្ស៊ី នៅ​មណ្ឌល​កំពង់ចាម កាលពី​ព្រឹក​ថ្ងៃទី​២៨ ខែកក្កដា រួចមក។
នៅ​ថ្ងៃចន្ច​នេះ លោក ជាម យៀប បានបញ្ជាក់​ថា ការធ្វើ​វិសោធនកម្ម ជំពូក​ទី​៦ នៃ​បទបញ្ជាផ្ទៃក្នុង​រដ្ឋសភា នៅ​ក្នុង​ដំណោះ ស្រាយ​នយោបាយ គឺ​ដើម្បី​បែងចែក​អំណាច​ដល់​គណ​បក្ស​ប្រឆាំង​នៅក្នុង​សភា​។ ចំពោះ​ការបែងចែក​អំណាច​នៅក្នុង​សភា គឺ​ប្រធានសភា ដឹកនាំ​ដោយ​សម្តេច​អគ្គ​មហា​ពញា​ចក្រី ហេង សំរិន ប្រធានរដ្ឋសភា (​គណបក្ស​ប្រជាជន​កម្ពុជា​)​។ អនុ ប្រធានសភា លោក កឹម សុខា (​គណបក្ស​សង្គ្រោះ​ជាតិ​) អនុប្រធាន​ទី​២​សភា គឺ​លោកស្រី ឃួន សុ​ដា​រី (​គណបក្ស​ប្រជា ជនកម្ពុជា​)​។ ចំពោះ​គណៈកម្មការ​ជំនាញ​មាន ១០ ដោយ​គណបក្ស​ប្រជាជន​កម្ពុជា ៥ គណៈកម្មការ និង​គណបក្ស​សង្គ្រោះ​ជាតិ ៥ គណៈកម្មការ​។ បើ​គណបក្ស​ប្រជាជន​កម្ពុជា​ធ្វើ​ប្រធាន​គណៈកម្មការ​នោះ អនុប្រធាន​គណៈ​កម្ម​គឺ​គណបក្ស​សង្គ្រោះ​ជាតិ​។ បើ​គណបក្ស​សង្គ្រោះ​ជាតិ ប្រធាន​គណៈកម្មការ​គឺ​គណបក្ស​ប្រជាជន​កម្ពុជា អនុប្រធាន​គណៈកម្មកា​រ​។​
លោក ជាម យៀប បាន​បន្ថែមថា សម្រាប់​តំណែង​លោក ងួន ញិ​ល អនុប្រធាន​ទី​១​រដ្ឋសភា គឺ​នឹង​ត្រូវ​ប្តូរ​មក​ជា​អនុប្រធាន​គណៈកម្មការ​មួយ ក្នុង​សភាជាតិ ដែល​មាន​ប្រធាន​គណៈកម្មការ ដឹកនាំ​ដោយ​គណបក្ស​សង្គ្រោះ​ជាតិ​។​
​គណៈកម្មការ​ទាំង ៥ នៅ​រដ្ឋសភា ដែល​គណបក្ស​ប្រជាជន​កម្ពុជា ទទួលបាន​ជា​ប្រធាន រួមមាន​៖ គណៈកម្មការ​ទី​២ ដឹកនាំ​ដោយ​លោក ជាម យៀប​។ គណៈកម្មការ​ទី​៤ ដឹកនាំ​ដោយ​លោក​ហ៊ុន​ណេង​។ គណៈកម្មការ​ទី​៥ លោក​ឈាង វុន​។ គណៈកម្មការ​ទី​៦ ដឹកនាំ​ដោយ​លោក ប៉ែន បញ្ញា និង​គណៈកម្មការ​ទី​៩ លោកស្រី និន សូ​ផុន​។​

Dr. Pung Chiv Kek accepted her nomination as the ninth member of the NEC with conditions attached

Pung Chiv Kek's conditions on acceptance of her nomination:
1. The NEC must be independent
2.. Members of the NEC must have immunity from prosecution
3. The NEC must have full powers of appointments and decision-making
4. The NEC must have its own independent budget.

លោកស្រី ពុង ឈីវហ្គេក ទទួលយកសមាជិកភាពទី៩ គជប ដោយភ្ជាប់លក្ខខណ្ឌ័ដូចជា៖

- ឯករាជ្យភាព គជប ត្រូវធានា សមាជិក គជប ត្រូវទទួលបានអភ័យឯកសិទ្ធ ស្វ័យភាពក្នូងការសំរេចចិត្
- មានសិទ្ធរើសបុគ្គលិកជំនាញ គ្រប់គ្រង ចាត់ចែង ទទួលថវិកាដោយឯករាជ្យ និងជំនួយផ្សេងៗ 

Editorial: It is high time for Cambodia’s Hun Sen to go

The Financial Times
28th July, 2014

The prime minister has ruled the country for too long

A year-long political crisis ended last week in Cambodia when the opposition agreed to take up its seats in parliament after disputed elections last July. In return for calling off its parliamentary boycott, eight opposition figures were released from detention on trumped-up insurrection charges.
Of potentially longer lasting significance, the government agreed to overhaul the election committee in order to bring some degree of transparency to the deeply compromised electoral process. Opposition representatives will also get the chairmanship of five out of 10 parliamentary commissions, including those covering labour, human rights and anti-corruption – all areas of urgent concern.

In some ways, we have been here before. Time and again, Hun Sen, the cunning prime minister who will in January celebrate 30 years in office, has done whatever it takes to prolong his grip on power.
That has included a spell as co-prime minister after he refused to accept the result of UN-organised elections in 1993. By 1997 he was back in full control after a coup.
Keen to maintain at least the semblance of democracy – useful for keeping the aid dollars flowing – he has gone through the rigmarole of regular elections since. At last year’s poll, his air of invincibility wore thin. His Cambodian People’s party only narrowly won an election that the opposition claimed was rigged.
Last week’s “breakthrough” will be meaningless if it turns out to be just another act in Mr Hun Sen’s drama of perpetual power. The opposition Cambodia National Rescue party, led by Sam Rainsy, must ensure that pledges are honoured. More, it should help create something other than a rubber-stamp legislature. The danger is that Mr Hun Sen, a master tactician, will split the opposition through inducements and threats.
In some ways, Cambodia has come a long way from the genocidal madness of the 1970s when Pol Pot’s Khmer Rouge killed at least 1.7m people. The economy, propelled by a fast-expanding garments industry, big inflows of tourists and a scramble for resources, has been growing at some 7 per cent a year for most of the past decade.
In Phnom Penh there is a veritable construction boom. Chinese investment, western aid and the emergence of a fragile middle class – as well as a thin layer of the well-connected super rich – give the country a frontier feel.
Unfortunately, that comes with decidedly wild-west governance. Hundreds of thousands of subsistence farmers have been turfed off their land to make way for cash crops. Environmental degradation is rife. Anger over land seizures and rampant corruption, as well as growing wealth disparities, labour militancy and a surprisingly strong civil society have radicalised the population.

Mu Sochua's interview with Phnom Penh Post យុទ្ធសាស្រ្ដ​ស​ង្រ្គោះជាតិ​សម្រុក​ចូល​រដ្ឋសភា

ទោះបីជា​កិច្ច​ព្រមព្រៀង​នយោបាយ​ក្រោម​សម្ពាធ​ដែល​ធ្វើឡើង​កាល​ពី​ថ្ងៃទី២២​ ខែ​កក្កដា​ ឆ្នាំ​២០១៤​នេះ​បាន​បង្ហាញ​ពី​ការ​បង្រួប​បង្រួម​ជាតិ​ និង​ បញ្ចប់​ការ​ជាប់​គាំង​នយោបាយ​ដ៏យូរ​នេះ​ក្តី​ ក៏ប៉ុន្តែ​វា​បាន​ក្លាយ​ជា​ស្នូរ​សង្ស័យ​បន្លឺ​ឡើង​ដល់​អ្នក​គាំទ្រ​បក្ស​នេះ​ចំពោះ​យុទ្ធសាស្ត្រ​ និង​ភាព​ជា​អ្នក​ដឹកនាំ​របស់​បក្ស​ប្រឆាំង​ដែល​មាន​ជំហរ​ដាច់ខាត​ចំពោះ​ការ​ទាមទារ​របស់​ខ្លួន​តាំង​ពី​ដំបូងៗ​។ ​
សម្រាប់​កម្មវិធី​សោតទស្សន៍​អនឡាញ​ «គតិឧត្ដមជន»​ សប្ដាហ៍​​ទី១​នេះ​ លោក​ស្រី ​មូរ សុខហួរ ពន្យល់​ពី​ករណីកិច្ច​ចាំបាច់​ដែល​បក្សប្រឆាំង​ត្រូវ​ត្រឡប់​ទៅកាន់​រដ្ឋសភា​ជាតិ។

Hun Sen sends a letter of appreciation to Dr. Pung Chiv Kek for accepting her nomination as the ninth member of the NEC លោក ហ៊ុន សែន ផ្ញើលិខិត​ ថ្លែងអំណរគុណ លោកស្រី ពុង ឈីវកេក ដែលយល់ព្រម ធ្វើជាសមាជិកថ្មី គ.ជ.ប

ភ្នំពេញ៖ គណបក្សប្រជាជនកម្ពុជា នៅល្ងាចថ្ងៃចន្ទនេះ បានផ្ញើលិខិតមួយច្បាប់ ថ្លែងអំណរគុណ ដល់លោកស្រី ពុង ឈីវកេក ប្រធានអង្គការលីកាដូ ដែលទទួលយល់ព្រមធ្វើជាសមាជិកថ្មី (ទី៩) របស់គ.ជ.ប តាមការស្នើសុំ របស់CPP ។ សូមអានលិខិតនេះដូចតទៅ៖

The ruling CPP reshuffles positions in the National Assembly គណបក្ស​កាន់​អំណាច​ផ្លាស់​ប្តូរ​តំណែង​នៅ​រដ្ឋសភា

តំណាងរាស្ត្រ​ជាប់​ឆ្នោត​គណបក្ស​ប្រជាជន​កម្ពុជា នៅ​ពេល​បើក​សម័យ​ប្រជុំ​សភា​លើក​ដំបូង​ក្រោម​ព្រះ​រាជាអធិបតី​ព្រះ​មហាក្សត្រ​កាល​ពី​ចុង​ឆ្នាំ​មុន។
តំណាងរាស្ត្រ​ជាប់​ឆ្នោត​គណបក្ស​ប្រជាជន​កម្ពុជា នៅ​ពេល​បើក​សម័យ​ប្រជុំ​សភា​លើក​ដំបូង​ក្រោម​ព្រះ​រាជាអធិបតី​ព្រះ​មហាក្សត្រ​កាល​ពី​ចុង​ឆ្នាំ​មុន។ រូបហេង ជីវ័ន

ភ្នំពេញៈ ផ្នែក​នៃ​កិច្ច​ព្រម​ព្រៀង​ចែក​រំលែក​អំណាច​ក្នុង​រដ្ឋសភា កាល​ពី​សប្តាហ៍​មុន ​គណបក្ស​ប្រជាជន​កម្ពុជា​នឹង​ផ្លាស់​ប្តូរ​អនុប្រធាន​ទី១ រដ្ឋសភា លោក ងួន ញិល ​ទៅ​ជា​អនុ​ប្រធាន​ទី ២​ ចំណែក​ឯ​ប្រធាន​គណៈកម្មការ​​រដ្ឋសភា​បច្ចុប្បន្ន និង​អនុ​ប្រធាន​ទី ២ នឹង​ក្លាយ​ជា​សមាជិក​ដដែល។
លោក ជាម យៀប ​តំណាងរាស្រ្ត​ពី​គណបក្ស​ប្រជា​ជន បាន​ថ្លែង​កាល​ពី​ថ្ងៃ​អាទិត្យ​ថា ការ​ផ្លាស់​ប្តូរ​​ក្នុង​រដ្ឋ​សភា នឹង​ត្រួស​ត្រាយ​ផ្លូវ​ដល់​ការ​គោរព​ពេញ​លេញ​ចំពោះ​កិច្ច​ព្រម​ព្រៀង​ស្តីពី​ដំណោះ​ស្រាយ​នយោបាយ​​រវាង​គណបក្ស​ប្រជាជន និង​គណបក្ស​សង្គ្រោះ​ជាតិ។
គណបក្ស​សង្គ្រោះ​ជាតិ​នឹងទទួល​បាន​តំណែង​អនុ​ប្រធានទី១ ​បន្ថែម​ពី​លើ​តំណែង​​ប្រធាន​គណៈកម្ម​ការ​ចំនួន ៥ ហើយ​គណបក្ស​​ប្រជាជន​នឹង​​នៅ​តែ​កាន់​អាសនៈ​ភាគ​ច្រើន​ក្នុង​​គណៈកម្មាធិការ​អចិន្រៃ្តយ៍​រដ្ឋសភា ដោយ​សារ​តែ​តំណែង​ប្រធាន​រដ្ឋសភា និង​អនុ​ប្រធាន​ទី​២ រដ្ឋសភា។
លោក យៀប បាន​បន្ត​ថា៖ «យើង​គ្មាន​បញ្ហា​អំពី​ការ​​ផ្លាស់​ប្តូរ​អាសនៈ​ក្នុង​រដ្ឋសភា​ទេ ​អនុ​ប្រធាន​ទី ១ របស់​យើង​អាច​​ប្តូរ​ទៅ​ជា​អនុ​ប្រធាន​ទី ២ អនុ​ប្រធាន​ទី ២ អាច​ប្តូរ​ទៅ​ជា​សមាជិក​​ធម្មតា ​ហើយ​ប្រធាន​គណៈកម្ម​ការ​ចំនួន ៥ នាក់​របស់​យើង​នឹង​ប្តូរ​ទៅ​ជា​សមាជិក​​។ ឥឡូវ​នេះ​យើង​​កំពុង​រង់ចាំ​គណបក្ស​សង្គ្រោះ​ជាតិ​បញ្ជូន​បញ្ជី​បេក្ខជន​កាន់​តំណែង​ទាំង​នេះ»។
ទោះ​ជា​យ៉ាង​ណា លោក​បាន​បន្ត​ថា ​រដ្ឋសភា​នឹងចាប់​ផ្តើម​កិច្ច​ប្រជុំ​នៅ​ថ្ងៃ​ចន្ទ ដើម្បី​ប្រកាស​សុពល​ភាព​តំណាង​រាស្រ្ត​ជាប់​ឆ្នោត​លោក សម រង្ស៊ី បន្ទាប់​មក លោក​នឹង​ដឹកនាំ​តំណាង​រាស្រ្ត​ជាប់​ឆ្នោត​​ទៅ​ព្រះ​បរមរាជ​វាំង​ដើម្បី​ស្បថ។
លោក យឹម សុវណ្ណ អ្នក​នាំ​ពាក្យ​គណបក្ស​សង្គ្រោះ​ជាតិ បាន​ថ្លែង​កាល​ពី​ថ្ងៃ​អាទិត្យ​ថា មាន​តែ​លោក​ សម រង្ស៊ី ​ប្រធាន​គណបក្ស​សង្គ្រោះ​ជាតិ​ម្នាក់​គត់ ដែល​នឹង​ចូល​រួម​ប្រជុំ​ក្នុង​រដ្ឋ​សភា នៅ​ថ្ងៃ​ចន្ទ។
លោក សុវណ្ណ បាន​បន្ត​ថា៖ «​នៅ​ពេល​នេះ យើង​មិន​ចាប់​អារម្មណ៍​អំពី​បុគ្គល [បេក្ខ​ជន​នឹង​កាន់​តំណែង​ប្រធាន​គណៈកម្មការ​រដ្ឋសភា និង​អនុប្រធាន​ទី១ ទេ] ព្រោះ​វា​មិន​សំខាន់​ចំពោះ​យើង​ទេ។ ប៉ុន្តែ​យើង​ផ្តោត​លើ​កំណែ​ទម្រង់»។

Youth opinions about the political agreement between the ruling party and the opposition

Cambodia-Thailand discuss about Preah Vihear dispute កម្ពុជា-​ថៃ​ពិភាក្សា​គ្នា​រឿង​ជម្លោះ​ប្រាសាទ​ព្រះវិហារ

ទៀ បាញ់ ៣០៥
ឧបនាយករដ្ឋមន្ត្រី និង​ជា​រដ្ឋមន្ត្រី​ក្រសួង​ការពារ​ជាតិ លោក​នាយ​ឧត្ដមសេនីយ៍ ទៀ បាញ់ ផ្ដល់​បទសម្ភាសន៍​ដល់​អ្នក​កាសែត នា​ក្រសួង​ការពារ​ជាតិ នៅ​ថ្ងៃ​ទី​១៤ ខែ​មីនា ឆ្នាំ​២០១២។
RFA/Sok Serey
Read in English here.
ក្រុម​ការងារ​ភាគី​កម្ពុជា តំណាង​ឲ្យ​រដ្ឋាភិបាល ដឹកនាំ​ដោយ​រដ្ឋមន្ត្រី​ក្រសួង​ការពារ​ជាតិ លោក ទៀ បាញ់ ធ្វើ​ទស្សនកិច្ច​ទីក្រុង​បាងកក ប្រទេស​ថៃ នៅ​ថ្ងៃ​ទី​២៨ កក្កដា ដើម្បី​ពង្រឹង​ទំនាក់ទំនង​ល្អ​ជាមួយ​គ្នា និង​ពិភាក្សា​អំពី​បញ្ហា​ជម្លោះ​ប្រាសាទ​ព្រះវិហារ។
កាល​ពី​ថ្ងៃ​ទី​១១ វិច្ឆិកា ឆ្នាំ​២០១៣ តុលាការ​យុត្តិធម៌​អន្តរជាតិ បាន​ប្រកាស​សាលក្រម​ឲ្យ​ភាគី​ថៃ ដកទ័ព​ចេញ​ពី​តំបន់​ក្បែរ​ប្រាសាទ​ព្រះវិហារ ដែល​ថៃ បាន​បញ្ជូន​កង​ទាហាន​មក​កាន់​កាប់​កាល​ពី​ខែ​កក្កដា ឆ្នាំ​២០០៨ ដោយ​បាន​បក​ស្រាយ​ថា តំបន់​នោះ​ស្ថិត​ក្នុង​បូរណភាព​ដែន​ដី​កម្ពុជា។ មក​ទល់​ពេល​នេះ ភាគី​ថៃ នៅ​មិន​ទាន់​ដកទ័ព​ចេញ​ពី​តំបន់​ក្បែរ​ប្រាសាទ​ព្រះវិហារ​តាម​សាល​ដីកា​នោះ​នៅ​ឡើយ​ទេ។
ក្រៅ​តែ​ពី​កិច្ចពិភាក្សា​អំពី​ជម្លោះ​រឿង​ប្រាសាទ​ព្រះវិហារ កាសែត​ថៃ បាងកក ប៉ុស្តិ៍ (Bangkok Post) ផ្សាយ​ថ្ងៃ​ទី​២៨ កក្កដា ថា ក្រុម​ការងារ​ភាគី​កម្ពុជា ដែល​ក្នុង​នោះ​មាន​កូន​លោក​នាយក​រដ្ឋមន្ត្រី ហ៊ុន សែន គឺ​លោក​ឧត្ដមសេនីយ៍ ហ៊ុន ម៉ាណែត ដែល​ដើរ​តួនាទី​យ៉ាង​សំខាន់​ចូល​រួម​ដែរ​នោះ នឹង​ជួប​ពិភាក្សា​ជាមួយ​មេទ័ព​ថៃ លោក ប្រាយុទ្ធ ចាន់អូចា (Prayuth Chan-ocha) រួម​ទាំង​មេ​បញ្ជាការ​ជាន់​ខ្ពស់​យោធា​ថៃ ដទៃ​ទៀត អំពី​ប្រធានបទ​ដទៃ​ទៀត ដូច​ជា​ការ​សហការ​ការពារ​សន្តិសុខ​ព្រំដែន ភេរវកម្ម​ ពលករ​ខុស​ច្បាប់ និង​ការ​ទប់ស្កាត់​ការ​ជួញដូរ​គ្រឿង​ញៀន៕

Khieu Samphan, Nuon Chea hearing set for Wednesday

Give our kids a better deal 
Khieu Samphan (R), and Nuon Chea
PHNOM PENH (The Cambodia Herald) -- The Khmer Rouge tribunal said its trial chamber would conduct a further initial hearing on Wednesday into the case against Khieu Samphan and Nuon Chea.

Charges covered by the hearing, which follows an initial hearing in 2011, include genocide of Cham and Vietnamese people, crimes against humanity and grave breaches of the Geneva Conventions of 1949.

In a statement released Monday, the tribunal said the hearing would consider civil party reparations, objections and legal issues, sequencing of proceedings and initial review of potential witnesses, civil parties and experts.

Khieu Samphan served as head of state during the Pol Pot regime from 1975 to 1979 while Nuon Chea was deputy secretary general of the Communist Party of Kampuchea.

Work starts to bridge Thailand – Cambodia missing link

28 Jul 2014

SOUTHEAST ASIA: A ground-breaking ceremony at Poipet in Cambodia on July 25 marked the start of work to reinstate the cross-border railway to Thailand.
The ceremony was attended by Cambodia’s Deputy Minister for Public Works & Transport Guang Sun and Thailand’s Permanent Secretary for Transport Soithip Traisuth. The attendees viewed the site of a 43 m long bridge over a stream close to the border with Thailand; reconstruction of this bridge is a priority, with construction of 42 km of new 1 000 mm gauge railway between the existing Cambodian railhead at Sisophon and Poipet already underway. A further 6 km of line will be reinstated to reach the State Railway of Thailand network at Aranyaphrathet. The last trains ran on the Aranyaphrathet – Poipet line in the early 1970s.
The Thai government has already agreed to fund the 2·8bn baht upgrading and double-tracking of the 176 km line from Aranyaphrathet to the junction at Khlong Sib Kao, northwest of Bangkok. The Thai government has agreed to focus on implementing long-planned cross-border rail schemes ahead of the launch of the ASEAN Economic Community in 2015.

Dr. Pung Chiv Kek accepts her nomination as the ninth member of the National Election Committee អ្នកស្រី ពុង ឈីវកេក ប្រធានអង្គការលីកាដូ បានយល់ព្រមធ្វើ ជាបេក្ខជនទី ៩នៃ គ ជ ប

Monday, 28 July 2014

Rights monitor tapped for 'neutral' NEC seat [Pung Chiv Kek named the ninth member of the NEC]

Pung Chiv Kek
Licadho president Pung Chhiv Kek has been selected as the ninth member of the reformed National Election Committee following a cross-party meeting this morning, a government official and sources in the rights group she heads have said.
Kek, who has yet to officially accept the role on the election body, could not be immediately reached, but senior Cambodian People’s Party lawmaker Cheam Yeap confirmed that she had been approached for the job.
“This morning, [Prime Minister] Hun Sen met with [Cambodia National Rescue Party president] Sam Rainsy to agree on the ninth member,” he said. “They choose Pung Chhiv Kek.”
Am Sam Ath, a senior investigator for Licadho, said Kek had yet to receive an official letter offering her the position.
“I cannot say on her behalf, because it is her decision. But the official letter will be coming this afternoon or tomorrow,” he said.
Another Licadho staff member, who declined to be named, said that the long-time human rights advocate would make an announcement tomorrow following a “long internal meeting” today.
“She has not made a decision yet. But she will say something tomorrow about this,” the staff member said.

Legendary singer Sin Sisamouth in France អធិរាជសម្លេងមាស ស៊ីន​ ស៊ីសាមុត នៅប្រទេសបារាំង

Licadho President Selected as Ninth Member of New NEC

BY  AND  | the cambodia daily, JULY 28, 2014
The ruling CPP and opposition CNRP have selected Pung Chhiv Kek, a founder and president of local rights group Licadho, to become the ninth “consensus” member of the new bipartisan electoral commission.
“The two parties have agreed to choose her but I do not know any further details on whether or not she accepts this or not,” said senior CPP lawmaker and party spokesman Cheam Yeap on Monday morning.
Opposition leader Sam Rainsy also confirmed that the CNRP had approved Ms. Chhiv Kek’s selection as the ninth and final member.
“I will wait for her to officially accept. I think this a matter of one hour, then we will know whether she has accepted or not,” he said at 11:50 a.m. “We need the confirmation before I can make any comment.”
Ms. Chhiv Kek, who was in a meeting, could not be reached to confirm whether she would accept the position.
Am Sam Ath, a senior technical supervisor at Licadho, said that the NGO was presently holding meetings to discuss what to do if Ms. Chhiv Kek moves on.
“The two parties requested her to be the ninth candidate and she is considering this and she may accept it,” said Mr. Sam Ath.
During the 1980s, Ms. Chhiv Kek, who had spent years in exile in France, helped broker talks between Mr. Hun Sen and Prince Norodom Sihanouk that helped end the country’s civil war in 1991.
Mr. Yeap said the CPP was pleased with the choice.
“I think since she’s back in her home country…and started up her rights group organization, she fits this position,” Mr. Yeap said.

Interview with Keo Putrasmey, ex-president of Funcinpec, about the CNRP joining the parliament បទសម្ភាសន៍រវាងលោក កែវ ពុទ្ធរស្មី អតីតប្រធានគណបក្សហ៊្វុនស៊ិនប៉ិច

Dr. Pung Chiv Kek accepted to be the ninth member of NEC with conditions អ្នកស្រី ពុង ឈីវកេក ព្រម​ទទួល​តំណែង​​​ជា​សមាជិក​គ.ជ.ប​ដោយ​ដាក់​លក្ខខណ្ឌ

ពុង ឈីវកេក ៦១០
ប្រធាន​អង្គការ​សិទ្ធិ​មនុស្ស​លីកាដូ (LICADHO) អ្នកស្រី​វេជ្ជបណ្ឌិត ពុង ឈីវកេក ក្នុង​វេទិកា​អ្នក​ស្ដាប់​វិទ្យុ​អាស៊ីសេរី នៅ​យប់​ថ្ងៃ​ទី​៣១ ខែ​មករា ឆ្នាំ​២០១៤។
Photo: RFA

អ្នក​ដឹកនាំ​គណបក្ស​សង្គ្រោះ​ជាតិ បាន​ផ្ញើ​លិខិត​អបអរ​ចំពោះ​អ្នកស្រី ពុង ឈីវកេក ប្រធាន​អង្គការ​ការពារ​សិទ្ធិ​មនុស្ស​លីកាដូ ដែល​ព្រម​ទទួល​តំណែង​ជា​សមាជិក​ទី​នៃ​គណៈកម្មាធិការ​ជាតិ​រៀបចំ​ការ​បោះ​ឆ្នោត​ហៅ​កាត់​ថា គ.ជ.ប។ ការ​ស្នើ​តែងតាំង​អ្នកស្រី ពុង ឈីវកេក នេះ​មាន​សញ្ញា​យល់​ព្រម​ពី​លោក​នាយករដ្ឋមន្ត្រី ហ៊ុន សែន អនុ​ប្រធាន​គណបក្ស​ប្រជាជន​កម្ពុជា ផង​ដែរ។
​ប្រធាន​អង្គការ​ការពារ​សិទ្ធិ​មនុស្ស​លីកាដូ (Licadho) អ្នកស្រី ពុង ឈីវកេក ប្រជុំ​ឯកភាព​គ្នា​ជាមួយ​បុគ្គលិក​រួចរាល់​នៅ​​រសៀល​ថ្ងៃ​ទី​២៨ ខែ​កក្កដា ហើយ​ផ្ញើ​លិខិត​មួយ​ច្បាប់​ទៅ​កាន់​គណបក្ស​ជាប់​ឆ្នោត​ទាំង​ពីរ។
លិខិត​របស់​​អ្នកស្រី ពុង ឈីវកេក ផ្ញើ​ជូន​គណបក្ស​ជាប់​ឆ្នោត​ទាំង​ពីរ​មាន​ខ្លឹមសារ​ថា អ្នកស្រី​សង្ឃឹម​ថា សមាជិក គ.ជ.ប នឹង​មាន​ការ​ការពារ​ដោយ​អភ័យ​ឯកសិទ្ធិ ការ​ធានា​ឲ្យ​មាន​ស្វ័យភាព​ក្នុង​ការ​ធ្វើ​សេចក្ដី​សម្រេច​ចិត្ត ហើយ​គួរ​តែ​មាន​សិទ្ធិ​ជ្រើស​រើប​បុគ្គលិក​ជំនាញ​ដើម្បី​បំពេញ​ការងារ ព្រម​ទាំង​មាន​ថវិកា​ស្វយ័ត ហើយ​មាន​សិទ្ធិ​ចាត់ចែង​ថវិកា​ជំនួយ​ពី​ក្នុង​និង​ក្រៅ​ប្រទេស។
​មន្ត្រី​អ្នក​នាំ​ពាក្យ​គណបក្ស​សង្គ្រោះ​ជាតិ លោក យឹម សុវណ្ណ មាន​ប្រសាសន៍​ថា មក​ដល់​ល្ងាច​ម៉ោង ៦​ល្ងាច គណបក្ស​សង្គ្រោះ​ជាតិ ផ្ញើ​លិខិត​តប​ទៅ​អ្នកស្រី ពុង ឈីវកេក វិញ ដោយ​បញ្ជាក់​ថា គណបក្ស​ប្រឆាំង​ធំ​ជាង​គេ​នេះ គាំទ្រ​ការ​សម្រេច​ចិត្ត​របស់​អ្នកស្រី និង​យល់ព្រម​តាម​អ្វី​ដែល​អ្នកស្រី​ចង់​បាន។ លោក​បញ្ជាក់​ថា អ្នកស្រី ពុង ឈីវកេក ជា​តួអង្គ​សំខាន់​មួយ​ដែល​នឹង​នាំ​ឲ្យ​មាន​ការ​កែទម្រង់​ការ​បោះឆ្នោត​នៅ​កម្ពុជា៖ «សំឡេង»។
​មន្ត្រី​អង្គការ​ពារ​សិទ្ធិមនុស្ស​ឲ្យ​ដឹង​ថា មក​ដល់​ម៉ោង ៦​ល្ងាច ថ្ងៃ​ទី​២៨ ខែ​កក្កដា នេះ គណបក្ស​ប្រជាជន​កម្ពុជា មិន​ទាន់​ផ្ដល់​ចម្លើយ​តប​ចំពោះ​ជំហរ​របស់​អ្នកស្រី ពុង ឈីវកេក ឡើយ។ អ្នកស្រី ពុង ឈីវកេក វិញ ប្រាប់​វិទ្យុ​អាស៊ីសេរី នៅ​វេលា​ម៉ោង​ជាង ៥​ល្ងាច​ថា រូប​គាត់​មិន​ទាន់​សម្រេច​ចិត្ត​បែប​ណា​ឡើយ ដោយ​រង់ចាំ​លិខិត​តប​ពី​គណបក្ស​ទាំង​ពីរ​សិន។ ក្នុង​លិខិត​របស់​អ្នកស្រី​ផ្ញើ​ទៅ​កាន់​ប្រធាន​គណបក្ស​សង្គ្រោះ​ជាតិ មាន​ខ្លឹមសារ​ថា អ្នកស្រី​ទទួល​យក​សំណើ​នេះ​បាន​លុះ​ណា​តែ​អ្នកស្រី​អាច​បំពេញ​ការងារ​ជូន​ជាតិ​បាន​ដោយ​ឯករាជ្យ​តាម​មនសិការ​ស្នេហា​ជាតិ។ អ្នកស្រី​ក៏​សន្យា​ថា នឹង​ធ្វើ​ការងារ​តាម​ច្បាប់ តាម​រដ្ឋធម្មនុញ្ញ និង​យុត្តិធម៌ ដើម្បី​សុខុមាលភាព​នៃ​ពលរដ្ឋ​កម្ពុជា។
​ទាក់ទង​នឹង​បញ្ហា​នេះ លោកនាយក​រដ្ឋមន្ត្រី ហ៊ុន សែន មាន​ប្រសាសន៍​ប្រាប់​អ្នក​កាសែត​នៅ​វិមាន​រដ្ឋ​សភា​​ថា គណបក្ស​ទាំង​ពីរ​បាន​ព្រមព្រៀង​គ្នា​រួចរាល់​ក្នុង​ការ​ជ្រើសរើស​សមាស​ភាព​ទី​៩ នៃ​សមាជិក​គណៈកម្មាធិការ​ជាតិ​រៀបចំ​ការ​បោះ​ឆ្នោត ហើយ​គណបក្ស​ប្រជាជន​កម្ពុជា ក៏​កំពុង​រង់ចាំ​ចម្លើយ​តប​ពី​ម្ចាស់​​សាមី​ខ្លួន។ លោក​បញ្ជាក់​ថា សមាសភាព​ទាំង​អស់​នៃ​គណៈកម្មាធិការ​ជាតិ​រៀបចំ​ការ​បោះ​ឆ្នោត នឹង​​ត្រូវ​ប្រកាស​ជា​សាធារណៈ​នៅ​ពេល​ដ៏​ខ្លី​ខាង​មុខ៖ «សំឡេង»។

Suon Chamroeun, representative of the CNRP National Council from Battambang, speaking at the first CNRP's first National Congress​ 27/7/14 លោក សួន ចំរើន ថ្លែងក្នុងថ្ងៃសន្និបាត!

Cambodia monitors and understands Thailand's situation: Tea Banh

BANGKOK (The Nation/ANN) - Cambodia's Deputy Premier and Defence Minister Tea Banh on Monday started his first official visit to Thailand since the Thai military seized the power.

Tea Banh, accompanied by Lt Gen Hun Manet, is scheduled to meet junta chief Gen Prayuth Chanocha on Tuesday. Hun Manet is the son of Cambodia’s Prime Minister Hun Sen.

Thailand and Cambodia fell out over the interpretation of the World Court’s 1963 ruling on the Preah Vihear temple. 

Cambodia took the issue to the International Court of Justice during Abhisit Vejjajiva;s premiership.

Shortly after the Thai junta seized the power in May, Cambodia agreed to release a Thai activist; Veera Somkwamkid, who was jailed for espionage. 

Tea Banh’s visit is considered significant and demonstrative of the improvement in bilateral ties.

Tea Banh said Cambodia has monitored the political developments in Thailand and was aware of the political, military and other issues. His country was pleased to be invited to visit Thailand at this time, he said.

Thailand’s problem solving has been clear and led to the restoration of peace and order.

Tea Banh quoted Hun Sen as saying that he understood the Thai situation very well. 

A Lonely Road Home for Returnees From the US

BY  | JULY 28, 2014
In 1983, when he was 13, Chino left a Thai refugee camp on the Cambodian border and went to live in the U.S. with his grandmother, aunts and sisters. He never expected to see Cambodia again.
But six months ago, after serving 16 years in Michigan State Prison for attempted murder and spending an additional year and a half in an immigration detention center, he was deported back to Cambodia —one of more than 400 former refugees sent back for crimes or misdemeanors since a repatriation agreement was signed by Cambodia and the U.S. in 2002.
He arrived in Phnom Penh with no money and was sent by Cambodia’s immigration police to Poipet to live with his aging mother, who he hadn’t seen since they were separated when he was a child.
“My mom is old now and I don’t remember her much but they tried to help me out a little bit, her and my half-sister, but they are poor too, so it was hard,” said Chino, who declined to provide his given name for fear that his criminal record might scare off potential employers.
After two months trying to find work and desperate for money, he opted to follow many poor Cambodians illegally crossing the border to find work in Thailand.
“I paid people to take me there in a truck, kind of like they do on the Mexico border you know—what they call ‘coyotes.’ I paid 1,000 baht [about $32] to cross the border with a lot of poor people, farmer people, all packed in on top of each other.”
For a few months, Chino earned about $10 a day doing construction work in various provinces in Thailand until word spread in May that the Thai military government was preparing to crack down on illegal migrant workers. During the first two weeks of June, some 250,000 Cambodians fled back across the border.
“The military government started going around work places arresting people,” he said. “A lot of people started leaving and when I saw that, I knew I don’t want to end up back in jail for wanting to work for a living, so I paid somebody to take me back”
Chino has been back in Phnom Penh for two months now. He had not heard about the government’s efforts to return workers to Thailand legally, with reduced fees for passports and working papers. Although he has yet to find a job, he decided he wants to make it work in Cambodia.
First, he must fight against the discrimination felt by many returnees. He feels judged and excluded from jobs because of his tattoos, etched over most of his body during his teenage years moving between Chicago; Stockton, California and Holland, Michigan as part of the Bloods gang.
“Cambodians are quick to judge,” he said. “I mean, I heard it’s a lot different here than it was 10, 12 years ago—they got tattoo shops and all, but nobody else got tattoos like us so it’s still not easy just because the society is more modern—we still don’t fit in.”

Cambodia opposition leader Sam Rainsy endorsed by parliament, ends year-long stalemate

Sam Rainsy (R), president of the Cambodia National Rescue Party (CNRP), speaks to members of the media at Cambodia's National Assembly in central Phnom Penh July 28, 2014.  REUTERS/Samrang Pring
Sam Rainsy (R), president of the Cambodia National Rescue Party (CNRP), speaks to members of the media at Cambodia's National Assembly in central Phnom Penh July 28, 2014.


(Reuters) - Cambodia's parliament endorsed opposition leader Sam Rainsy as a lawmaker on Monday as part of a deal with long-term rival Prime Minister Hun Sen that both leaders hailed as an end to a year-long political crisis.
Cambodia has been without an effective parliament since Sam Rainsy's opposition, the Cambodia National Rescue Party (CNRP), rejected a 2013 election claiming widespread voter fraud and boycotted parliament.
The political crisis saw some of the country's biggest street rallies ever and led to violent crackdowns on protesters and striking garment workers, which alarmed major clothing brands that outsource manufacturing to Cambodia, such as Nike, Gap and Adidas.
Hun Sen, the self-styled "strongman" of Cambodian politics, shook hands with a smiling Sam Rainsy to cement an agreement that would see reform of the National Election Commission and parliament and bigger legislative clout for the opposition.
Sam Rainsy was for several years banned from politics because of a media stunt over territorial sovereignty that backfired and led to a 12-year prison sentence in absentia.
He was pardoned just before last year's election and another lawmaker-elect withdrew to enable Sam Rainsy to take his parliamentary seat.
"I'm honored and happy to tell all compatriots that the political crisis in Cambodia has ended," Rainsy told reporters after being endorsed by the national assembly.
The CNRP struck the deal with Hun Sen's Cambodian People's Party (CPP) on July 22, ending the opposition's house boycott since the disputed 2013 poll.
Under the deal, CNRP would be gain a license for its own television channel, four of nine seats on the election commission and a deputy house speaker position, among other roles.
"This is a good process and our people in the whole country understand compromise," Hun Sen told reporters. "Today, we can say that the environment is good."

Cambodia's deadlock ends but questions linger

  • By Abby Seiff | Al Jazeera
Phnom Penh, Cambodia - When Prime Minister Hun Sen and the leader of the opposition sat down last week to sign a joint accord paving the way to end a yearlong political deadlock, the international and business communities let out a collective sigh of relief.
The EU and Japan released letters of support in quick succession, while the UN's special envoy to Cambodia offered "congratulations" to both parties and encouraged the "Cambodian people to enjoy a moment of celebration".
After a year of protracted demonstrations and political unrest (and just after a week that saw eight opposition officials thrown in prison and dozens injured at an opposition rally) the waters had calmed.
"I think this is a historical opportunity for the country to move forward on healthier ground. [We will see] a balanced system for the first time," said Cambodia National Rescue Party (CNRP) president Sam Rainsy.
The key to the seven-point agreement issued on July 22, is a new National Election Commission (NEC). A ruling-party-aligned body, the NEC has come under fire for failing to ensure free and fair elections. After last year's vote, the anniversary of which is today, the CNRP accused the NEC of helping rig the election in the ruling party's favour and called for recounts and re-elections - neither of which were granted.
Cambodia's parliament also appointed Rainsy as a lawmaker on Monday, moving another step closer to ending the political deadlock.
Long-standing political impasse
Though the opposition had won an unprecedented 44.4 percent of the popular vote (to the ruling party's 48.5) and 55 of 123 parliamentary seats, the party stood firm on its charges and boycotted its seats, setting into motion the longest political deadlock in Cambodia's history.
Peaceful mass demonstrations rocked the capital, causing increased uneasiness within the ruling Cambodian People's Party. When garment strikers began holding concurrent wage protests, the government reacted with growing pressure and, after strikes turned violent, responded with blunt force in January.
At least six people were killed by armed security-forces, and dozens more injured and arrested. The incidents were followed by an authoritarian clampdown on freedom of expression, including opposition demonstrations.

Are Cambodian Leaders Serious About Implementing Reforms?

By Parameswaran Ponnudurai 2014-07-28
Sam Rainsy (L) shakes hands with Hun Sen following a meeting in Phnom Penh, July 22, 2014.
Doubts are emerging over whether Cambodia's Prime Minister Hun Sen will live up to his promise of implementing electoral and other reforms under an agreement he clinched with the country's opposition aimed at ending a year long political deadlock following disputed elections.

While political pundits and experts doubt the sincerity of Hun Sen, who has outfoxed all opponents since he came to power three decades ago, questions are also being asked whether opposition leader Sam Rainsy has been so gullible to have fallen into a potential trap by the strongman.

"I think the opposition has now put its signature to a corrupt system and that 's the first time this opposition [under Sam Rainsy] has done that and they have sold out the Cambodian people," U.S.-based Human Rights Watch's Asia Director Brad Adams charged.

Human rights and judicial reforms — some of the key issues championed by Sam Rainsy's  Cambodia National Rescue Party (CNRP) — were absent from the agreement reached last week after months of negotiations, Adams noted.

He said that as Hun Sen's Cambodian People's Party (CPP) machinery is in complete control of parliament, it would be near impossible for CNRP to bring about any reforms even though the opposition party has been given equal sharing of responsibilities under the agreement with CPP in terms of chairing panels in the legislature.

Under the pact, elected lawmakers from CNRP have agreed to end their nearly one year boycott of parliament after Hun Sen accepted the party's proposal to revamp the government-appointed National Election Committee (NEC) which conducts polls in the country.

The NEC had declared Hun Sen's CPP as victor in the July 2013 general elections despite criticism that the polls had been rigged.

Some groups believe Hun Sen would manipulate the composition of the new nine-member NEC to his advantage.

Cambodian defense minister flies to Thailand for official visit

PHNOM PENH, July 28 (Xinhua) -- Cambodian Deputy Prime Minister and Defense Minister Tea Banh flew to Thailand on Monday for a two- day visit to strengthen bilateral ties and cooperation.
Tea Banh is accompanied by Gen. Meas Sophea, deputy commander- in-chief of the Royal Cambodian Armed Forces, Admiral Tea Vinh, commander of the Royal Navy, and Gen. Soeung Samnang, commander of the Royal Cambodian Air Force.
During the visit, he will meet with Thai Army Chief Gen. Prayuth Chan-ocha, head of the National Council for Peace and Order, Supreme Commander Gen. Tanasak Patimapragorn and Defense Ministry permanent secretary Gen. Surasak Karnchanarat.
"The visit is to further enhance bilateral ties and cooperation, particularly to strengthen security and curb cross- border crimes along the border," Tea Banh told reporters at Phnom Penh International Airport before leaving for Bangkok.

Thai-Cambodian railway soon to be constructed

Sunday, 27 July 2014 By  NNT
SA KEO, 26 July 2014  -- Thai representatives have joined in a foundation stone laying ceremony held in Cambodia, setting the wheels in motion for the construction of railway linking the two countries together.
The Klong Luek - Poipet railway, now under construction, will link Cambodia's Bantey Meanchey province to Thailand's Sa Keo, 176 kilometers away. When completed, the new line is expected to boost growth in tourism and trade between the two countries. It is hoped to enable Sakeo and Bantey Mienchey to be logistics hubs when ASEAN Economy Community kicks off next year.
The Klongleuk-Poipet line is indicative of a long history of close ties between Thailand and Cambodia. It was first constructed in 1926 to transport goods from Thailand to the neighboring country. It was abandoned forty years ago during the battle between Khmer Rouge and the then Cambodia government.

Who get what in this agreement?

Image credit: Sam Rainsy Facebook


After nearly a year-long battle on election dispute with the ruling party, CPP, finally CNRP doesn't  get what it deserves most--an independent inquiry on election fraud and re-election.  But the CNRP has successfully forced the CPP to accept a deeply electoral reform, balancing the power in the National Election Committee (NEC) which has been solely controlled by the CPP over 20 years.  This is a glimpse of hope for an acceptable election result in the future. However, this political solution has sent a mixed message to the CNRP supporters while most of them have cautiously cheered an agreement, the others felt betrayed by the CNRP as they have strongly opposed any attempt to compromise with the CPP which has been well known as traitor and Hanoi puppet.  Meanwhile, the CNRP has asked its supporters to follow up its actions and to give the party more time to prove how its new shifted strategy may work better than the current one-- to shift a battle from the streets to the national assembly floor.

The current political solution doesn't mean the CNRP surrenders to the CPP but agrees to work with them in the national assembly rather than to challenge with them on the streets which has produced nothing more than deaths, injuries, and jail terms while Hun Sen still firmly holds the power.  And since the violent incident on Veng Sreng Rd. January 2, 2014, the CNRP activities against Hun Sen regime has been faltered and curbed by the government.  Every action has been faced with violent confrontations with CPP's thugs and organized supporters from rural areas to the capital city, particularly at Freedom Park where the police had installed barbed wires to fence off the opposition supporters from staging a rally.  All attempts to reopen it were met with brutal crackdown from the police and security forces.   On the other hand, CNRP's diplomatic mission abroad had drawn mixed results though many countries around the world supported the CNRP's peaceful struggle, but they also urged the party to seek negotiation with an adamant CPP.  Even American officials told the CNRP leaders that the U.S. supported the CNRP's political struggle against the current dictatorial regime, but the U.S. could not do that job for them; they had to do on their own.  Actually, the international community hesitates to take any concrete action against the regime besides giving some warnings and urging both parties to continue negotiation.

Sunday, 27 July 2014

Sam Rainsy's speech at first National Congress of the CNRP 27/7/14 សន្ទរកថា លោក សម រង្ស៊ី នៅក្នុងសមាជទីមួយនៃគណបក្សសង្រ្គោះជាតិ

The first National Congress of the CNRP 27/7/14 សមាជទីមួយនៃគណបក្សសង្រ្គោះជាតិ